Journal of Geriatric Cardiology

Perspective
Review
Letter to the Editor

JAMA: Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

Link to full pdf file: ioi160062

Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

Mingyang Song, MD, ScD1,2; Teresa T. Fung, ScD2,3; Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD2,4,5; Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH2,4,5; Valter D. Longo, PhD6,7; Andrew T. Chan, MD, MPH1,5,8; Edward L. Giovannucci, MD, ScD2,4,5
[+] Author Affiliations

1Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston
2Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
3Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts
4Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
5Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
6Longevity Institute, School of Gerontology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
7FIRC (Italian Foundation for Cancer Research) Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milano, Italy
8Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge
JAMA Intern Med. Published online August 01, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182
ABSTRACT

Importance  Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome.

Objective  To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses’ Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

Results  Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was weakly associated with higher mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04), whereas plant protein was associated with lower mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend < .001). These associations were confined to participants with at least 1 unhealthy lifestyle factor based on smoking, heavy alcohol intake, overweight or obesity, and physical inactivity, but not evident among those without any of these risk factors. Replacing animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. In particular, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from processed red meat, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) from unprocessed red meat, and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.75-0.88) from egg.

Conclusions and Relevance  High animal protein intake was positively associated with mortality and high plant protein intake was inversely associated with mortality, especially among individuals with at least 1 lifestyle risk factor. Substitution of plant protein for animal protein, especially that from processed red meat, was associated with lower mortality, suggesting the importance of protein source.

Salt Promotes Passive Overconsumption of Dietary Fat in Humans

Brand new research supports something we’ve known for years: Salt promotes passive overconsumption of fat. Yet another reason why people struggle with flour products (breads, bagels, crackers, tortillas, dry cereals, etc) when trying to lose weight; these food products are leading contributors of salt in the diet. Before you salt, try lemon, lime or vinegars or try any hot sauce.

 

The Journal of Nutrition  First published ahead of print March 2, 2016

Abstract

Background: Excess fat consumption has been linked to the development of obesity. Fat and salt are a common and appetitive combination in food; however, the effect of either on food intake is unclear. Fat taste sensitivity has been negatively associated with dietary fat intake, but how fat taste sensitivity influences the intake of fat within a meal has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated.

Objectives: Our objectives were, first, to investigate the effects of both fat and salt on ad libitum food intake and, second, to investigate the effects of fat taste sensitivity on satiation responses to fat and whether this was affected by salt. Methods: Forty-eight healthy adults [16 men and 32 women, aged 18–54 y, body mass index (kg/m2): 17.8–34.4] were recruited and their fat taste sensitivity was measured by determination of the detection threshold of oleic acid (18:1n–6). In a randomized 2 3 2 crossover design, participants attended 4 lunchtime sessions after a standardized breakfast. Meals consisted of elbow macaroni (56%) with sauce (44%); sauces were manipulated to be 1) low-fat (0.02% fat, wt:wt)/low-salt (0.06% NaCl, wt:wt), 2) low-fat/high-salt (0.5% NaCl, wt:wt), 3) high-fat (34% fat, wt:/wt)/low-salt, or 4) high-fat/high-salt. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, pleasantness, and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness (secondary outcomes) were measured. Results: Salt increased food and energy intakes by 11%, independent of fat concentration (P = 0.022). There was no effect of fat on food intake (P = 0.6), but high-fat meals increased energy intake by 60% (P < 0.001). A sex 3 fat interaction was found (P = 0.006), with women consuming 15% less by weight of the high-fat meals than the low-fat meals. Fat taste sensitivity was negatively associated with the intake of high-fat meals but only in the presence of low salt (fat taste 3 salt interaction on delta intake of high-fat 2 low-fat meals; P = 0.012).

Conclusions: The results suggest that salt promotes passive overconsumption of energy in adults and that salt may override fat-mediated satiation in individuals who are sensitive to the taste of fat. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000048583. J Nutr doi: 10.3945/jn.115.226365.

Full PDF:

Full PDF article: Salt Promotes Passive Overconsumption of Dietary Fat in Humans

Saving the Planet, One Meal at a Time

Saving the Planet, One Meal at a Time

Posted on Nov 9, 2014

By Chris Hedges

Shutterstock

Numbered footnotes, with hyperlinks, appear at the end of this article.

My attitude toward becoming a vegan was similar to Augustine’s attitude toward becoming celibate—“God grant me abstinence, but not yet.” But with animal agriculture as the leading cause of species extinction, water pollution, ocean dead zones and habitat destruction2, and with the death spiral of the ecosystem ever more pronounced, becoming vegan is the most important and direct change we can immediately make to save the planet and its species. It is one that my wife—who was the engine behind our family’s shift—and I have made.

A person who is vegan will save 1,100 gallons of water, 20 pounds CO2 equivalent, 30 square feet of forested land, 45 pounds of grain and one sentient animal’s life1every day.

Animal agriculture is responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than all worldwide transportation combined—cars, trucks, trains, ships and planes.3 Livestock and their waste and flatulence account for at least 32,000 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, or 51 percent of all worldwide greenhouse gas emissions.4Livestock causes 65 percent of all emissions of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas 296 times more destructive than carbon dioxide.5 Crops grown for livestock feed consume 56 percent of the water used in the United States.6 Eighty percent of the world’s soy crop is fed to animals, and most of this soy is grown on cleared lands that were once rain forests. All this is taking place as an estimated 6 million children across the planet die each year from starvation and as hunger and malnutrition affect an additional 1 billion people.7 In the United States 70 percent of the grain we grow goes to feed livestock raised for consumption.8

To read more click link below:

http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/saving_the_planet_one_meal_at_a_time_20141109

For PDF file of Livestock’s Long Shadow cited in Hedges article. Footnotes 2, 3.

livestock’s long shadow

The Plant-Based Diet from Kaiser

Kaiser is upping there game in primary prevention and disease reversal as they should given their economic structure. As more of medical care transitions toward a capitation model, there is now incentive to keep patients well. Imagine that! I was very impressed to see that out of 400 participants at the 2nd International Plant-Based Nutrition Healthcare Conference in San Diego that I attended last month, over a 100 doctors and dieticians were from Kaiser. I had a great conversation with a few dieticians who worked to put the new Plant-Based Diet guide to together and they were happy to allow me to pass on their good work. I also included the article from Kaiser physicians advocating a whole foods plant-based diet.

 

New Plant Based Booklet 1214_tcm28-781815

Nutr Update for Doc Plant Based Update