JAMA: Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

Link to full pdf file: ioi160062

Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

Mingyang Song, MD, ScD1,2; Teresa T. Fung, ScD2,3; Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD2,4,5; Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH2,4,5; Valter D. Longo, PhD6,7; Andrew T. Chan, MD, MPH1,5,8; Edward L. Giovannucci, MD, ScD2,4,5
[+] Author Affiliations

1Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston
2Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
3Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts
4Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
5Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
6Longevity Institute, School of Gerontology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
7FIRC (Italian Foundation for Cancer Research) Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milano, Italy
8Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge
JAMA Intern Med. Published online August 01, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182
ABSTRACT

Importance  Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome.

Objective  To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses’ Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

Results  Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was weakly associated with higher mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04), whereas plant protein was associated with lower mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend < .001). These associations were confined to participants with at least 1 unhealthy lifestyle factor based on smoking, heavy alcohol intake, overweight or obesity, and physical inactivity, but not evident among those without any of these risk factors. Replacing animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. In particular, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from processed red meat, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) from unprocessed red meat, and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.75-0.88) from egg.

Conclusions and Relevance  High animal protein intake was positively associated with mortality and high plant protein intake was inversely associated with mortality, especially among individuals with at least 1 lifestyle risk factor. Substitution of plant protein for animal protein, especially that from processed red meat, was associated with lower mortality, suggesting the importance of protein source.

Mindfulness/Meditation

The mind matters most! So essential and beautiful to have a full presence in the body, space around us, with other beings, earth and universe. To be truly in this life in all it’s glory and holiness. Aside from proper nutrition and water, nothing is more important than a daily mindfulness practice. It is dangerous to your health and soul/true self to not practice! I just got back from completing my 3rd 10-day vipassana meditation course. Details via the link below. Awareness of respiration and body sensations, sharpening the mind while remaining equanimous (with a balanced mind). Not reacting with craving to positive sensations nor with avulsion toward the negative. Recognize the impermanence of all things within the law of nature. Live a moral life full of compassion and joy. Do not kill. Do not steal. Know thyself. Get the band back together: body, mind and spirit!

Below are two that we teach in our clinic.

Mindfulness techniques

1. A room, breath and body focus technique:

Sit comfortably or lie down. If you tend to fall asleep lying down, then it is better to sit. Keep both feet on the ground if sitting in a chair. Bring your attention to the room, from far walls, then to objects closer. This will help you to ground yourself into the space around you and help settle the mind. When you are ready bring your attention to your breath. You can close your eyes at this time ideally or keep open. Observe your breath and change it to a slow abdominal breath. (see mindful breathing below) Notice your shoulders: are they suspended above your ribs or resting. Allow them to rest on your rib cage. Allow your facial muscles to relax. Allow your belly to rise on the in breath and fall on the out breathe. Breathe in through your nose and out through your nose or mouth. Follow your breath for a few cycles or more, especially on the slow exhalation. Then bring your attention to your body. Scan your body for any sensations. From the feet to the head or head to feet. Just observe without judgment. You will notice your mind wandering and this is natural. After noticing the wandering, gently bring your attention back to the breath or body. The mind needs exercise just like the body does. Every time you are thinking or triggered or upset and you bring your attention back to your breadth and body you are ‘flexing your brain muscle’ and strengthening your brain. This is called neuroplasticity. And you can practice this all day long in every occasion. Our stress and struggles in our life, which are often unavoidable, can become teaching moments that strengthen us rather than drag us down.

2. Mindful Breathing:

Shallow breathing may lead to tension and fatigue. Breathing with your diaphragm tends to reduce stress and improve energy.

Abdominal breathing, also known as diaphragmatic breathing, is a powerful way to decrease stress by activating relaxation centers in the brain. The abdominal expansion causes negative pressure to pull blood into the chest, improving the venous flow of blood back to the heart.

Find a comfortable place to sit or lie down, with your feet slightly apart, one hand on your abdomen near the navel, and the other hand on your chest.

Gently exhale the air in your lungs through your mouth, then inhale slowly through your nose to the count of 4, pushing out your abdomen slightly and concentrating on your breath. As you breathe in, imagine warm air flowing all over your body. Hold the breath for a count of at least 4 but not more than 7.

Slowly exhale through your mouth while counting to 8. Gently contract your abdominal muscles to completely release the remaining air in the lungs.

Repeat until you feel deeply relaxed for a total of 5 cycles. You may be able to do only 1 or 2 cycles at first

Once you feel comfortable with your ability to breathe into the abdomen, it is not necessary to use your hands on your abdomen and chest.

May all beings be happy and free.

Kyle

http://www.dhamma.org

 

Plant-Based Diets: A Physician’s Guide

ABSTRACT

Because of the ever-increasing body of evidence in support of the health advantages of plant-based nutrition, there is a need for guidance on implementing its practice. This article provides physicians and other health care practitioners an overview of the myriad benefits of a plant-based diet as well as details on how best to achieve a well-balanced, nutrient-dense meal plan. It also defines notable nutrient sources, describes how to get started, and offers suggestions on how health care practitioners can encourage their patients to achieve goals, adhere to the plan, and experience success.

Full Report in PDF
PlantBasedDiets

Link to Kaiser Journal. http://www.thepermanentejournal.org/issues/2016/summer/6192-diet.html

Living With The Land | Part 6 | Animal-free Farming

“Ian Tolhurst, a long-time veganic farmer, explains how he uses the fertility of his own soil through a systemic approach to farming. This means that he does not need to rely on external inputs, whether they are synthetic or animal. Indeed, many have arrived at veganic farming from a concern with sustainability, and when framed politically, autonomy.”
from Working Group on Veganic Farming http://millahcayotl.org